No Child is Left Behind? ——Left-Behind Children and Drop-Out Rates in China


Yaoyu Zhang, Xiamen University, China


The education of left-behind children is of great concern during the process of urbanization in many developing countries. Using the fixed effect model and the time-varying difference-in-difference model, we examine how left-behind experiences affect children’s educational choices and identities. We find that left-behind children have an approximately 2% higher probability to drop out of school. They tend to report lower levels of education expectations and education expenditures. The negative effect of leftbehind experiences on education outcomes is significant, particularly among middle-school students. Despite improved living conditions, these findings suggest that left-behind experiences have hindered many children from enjoying educational success.


Left-behind children, Drop out, Education, Parental Migration